Allright, I am reporting back that the bike is fixed!!
It took about 2 hours from draining the oil to taking a test ride. The culprit was the little U-shaped spring that holds the prawl against the end of the shift drum. It had slipped partially out of place, but wasn't broken. I just slipped it back in where it goes and closed it up. I do plan to order a new spring since I am assuming the old one has gotten weak, and unless it strands me someplace between now and then I will probably install it the next time I change my oil.
Just a couple of things to add about this for any mechanical novices who have to do this in the future.
First, if you can put the bike up on a jack it will keep you from having to do this while laying on the floor. My riding buddy just found an AC Delco 1500 lb capacity bike/ATV jack at a yard sale for $40!! We put it to good use.
Second, you do have to disconnect the bottom end of the clutch cable to get it out of the way. The armature at the end of the cable slides off the shaft once you remove the set bolt. You do need to be careful to get it back on in the same position.
Third, the cover would not actually come all the way off. You can turn it to allow access to the space, but the shaft that turns the prawl sticks out and holds it against the frame and we weren't able to get it out. The only real problem with this is that it would be difficult (but not impossible) to put on a new gasket. Luckily the gasket was undamaged and the cover went back on with no leaks.
Thanks to Seebeeare, OlHoss, Pick and everyone elso who gave me advice on this.
You can imagine how awesome it felt to start it up and ride out of the driveway.